Learn PHP


A function is a self contained block of code that performs a specific task.

Functions avoid duplicating code. They make it easier to eliminate errors.

Functions can be reused in other scripts. They help you break down a big project.


A function often accepts one or more arguments, which are values passed to the function by the code that calls it.

The function can then read and work on those arguments.


A function may optionally return a value that can then be read by the calling code.

In this way, the calling code can communicate with the function.

PHP Function Create

We define functions with the function keyword, followed by the name of the function and two parentheses.

The actual code your function will execute lies between braces.

		  	function myFunc() { 
			   // (do stuff here) 

Example - define a function

	         function hello() { 
	            echo "Hello, world!\n"; 

PHP Function Return

Function can return one value back from functions by using the return statement.

If you try to assign to a variable the return value of a function that has no return value, your variable will be set to NULL.

Example - return value from a function

			function foo() { 
			       print "In function"; 
			       return 1; 
			       print "Leaving function..."; 
			print foo(); 

PHP Return Reference

As well as passing variables by reference into functions, you can also get functions to return references, rather than values.

Place an ampersand before the function name in your function definition. Then, when you return a variable with the return statement, you pass a reference to that variable back to the calling code, rather than the variable ' s value:

		  	function  &myFunc(){ 
			    // (do stuff) 
			   return $var;  // Returns a reference to $var 

			   $myNumber = 5; 

			   function  &getMyNumber() { 
			     global $myNumber; 
			     return $myNumber; 

			   $numberRef = &getMyNumber(); 
			   echo "\$myNumber = $myNumber\n";   // Displays "6" 
			   echo "\$numberRef = $numberRef\n"; // Displays "6"   

PHP Recursive Functions

A recursive function is a function which call itself.

Here's a quick overview of how a recursive function operates:

The recursive function is called by the calling code If the base case is met, the function does required calculation, then exits.

Otherwise, the function does required calculation, then calls itself to continue the recursion.

			function factorial($number) { 
			        if ($number == 0) return 1; 
			        return $number * factorial($number-1); 

			print factorial(6); 

Example - A PHP recursive function

			  function checkInteger($Number)
			    if($Number > 1)
			      // integer minus one is still an integer
			    elseif($Number < 0)
			      //numbers are symmetrical, so
			      //check positive version
			      if(($Number > 0) AND ($Number < 1))
			        //zero and one are
			        //integers by definition

			  print("Is 0 an integer? " .  checkInteger(0) . "<br>\n");
			  print("Is 7 an integer? " . checkInteger(7) . "<br>\n");
			  print("And 3.5? " . checkInteger(3.5) . "<br>\n");
			  print("What about -5? " . checkInteger(-5) . "<br>\n");
			  print("And -9.2? " . checkInteger(-9.2) . "<br>\n");

PHP Anonymous Function

PHP anonymous functions have no name.

To create functions dynamically

To create short-term, disposable functions


To create an anonymous function, you use separated list of parameters if any, and the code for the function body.

$myFunction = create_function( '$param1, $param2', 'function code here;' );

Example for anonymous function

			$mode = "+"; 
			$processNumbers = create_function( '$a, $b', "return \$a $mode \$b;" ); 
			echo $processNumbers( 2, 3 ); // Displays "5"   

Example - dynamical function

			  function write($text)

			  function writeBold($text)

			  $myFunction = "write";

			  $myFunction = "writeBold";

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